laut bergelora: Singapore bergelut dengan beberapa siri cetak rompak

penghantaran singaporeFoto:Paul Scott

kejadian lanun di Selat Melaka dan Singapura melonjak dalam 2019. Apa yang di belakang lonjakan dan bagaimana Singapura boleh menyimpannya perairan selamat?

oleh Joelyn Chan

The Straits of Malacca and Singapore (SOMS) is one of the busiest trade routes in the world. hampir separuh of all global seaborne trade passes through this marine corridor making it a strategic chokepoint for Indonesian, Malaysian and Singaporean imports.

Between September and December 2019, terdapat 16 incidents of piracy in the SOMS, double the total number of incidents in 2018. With piracy threatening security in the strait, littoral states will have to come together to protect their imports.

Graph recording incidents of piracy in the Straits of Malacca

What is behind the surge in piracy in the Straits of Malacca and Singapore?

Yang mendadak dalam insiden lanun telah berlaku serentak dengan tempoh konfrontasi dikurangkan antara lanun dan pelaut di Bangladesh, Filipina dan laluan air lain di Indonesia. Ada kemungkinan bahawa lanun mengalihkan perhatian mereka kepada SOMS. Tapi kenapa?

Bilveer Singh, Profesor Madya di Jabatan Sains Politik di Universiti Kebangsaan Singapura, kepada ASEAN Hari ini bahawa nombor peronda dikurangkan marin adalah "faktor penting" dalam lonjakan cetak rompak.

Perjanjian Kerjasama Serantau bagi Memerangi Pelanunan dan Rompakan Bersenjata Terhadap Kapal di Asia (ReCAAP), pusat perkongsian maklumat, pandangan dikongsi Mr Singh. organisasi itu mengaitkan peningkatan kadar cetak rompak untuk pengawasan laut menurun sebanyak negara-negara pesisir dan puas krew kapal.

The timing of the attacks also raises questions and exposes a potential vulnerability. Most attacks took place between 4 am and 6 am. It is possible that pirate crews are exploiting blind spots in patrols before dawn.

tambahan, as perpetrators see the success of others, shipping channels suddenly become targets for pirates looking to capitalise on vulnerabilities. Around the holiday period, there were six incidents of piracy in six days. The perpetrators were not violent, suggesting that their target was the theft of spare engine parts or other products.

Singapore depends on maintaining secure shipping lanes

Singapore’s port is among the busiest on earth. It handles more than 36.6 juta shipping containers a year as over 2.7 billion tons of cargo arrives every year on more than 130,000 kapal. Keeping these ships safe is essential.  menyumbang sektor maritim Singapura kira-kira 7% daripada keluaran dalam negara kasar (KDNK).

"Singapura adalah sasaran kerana ia dilihat sebagai sebuah negara yang berjaya dengan banyak sasaran pantai terdedah, "Singh berkata.  

Walaupun serangan tidak mungkin berlaku di pelabuhan Singapura, dan kebanyakannya kategori 4 serangan (kategori klasifikasi rendah dianggap minimum ganas) untuk mengekalkan tarikan sebagai hab logistik serantau, Angkatan Laut Republik Singapura (RSN) akan ingin meningkatkan tindak balas kepada ancaman cetak rompak.

pada bulan Oktober 2019, Singapura menjalankan latihan untuk meningkatkan keupayaan agensi-agensi maritim 'untuk meredakan ancaman keselamatan maritim. Walau bagaimanapun, Singh percaya bahawa tindak balas yang berkesan bermula dengan kecerdasan.

Angkatan Laut Republik Singapura Lt. Col. Tay Boon Chong, Ketua Rancangan RSN dan Doktrin Branch, dan Lt.Coll. Chew Chee Mun, komander, Tactical Air Support Group, observe a Hellfire missile exercise from the bridge of the guided-missile destroyer USS Chung-Hoon (DDG 93) during Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training (CARAT) 2009. CARAT is a series of bilateral exercises held annually in Southeast Asia to strengthen relationships and enhance the operational readiness of the participating forces.
The response to piracy starts with intelligence.
Foto: US Navy/Mass Communications Specialist Chief Susan Hammond

He told ASEAN Today the city-state needs “better intel” to adequately contain piracy. He also added that low-paid law enforcement officers were vulnerable to taking monetary incentives from pirates in exchange for their cooperation and protection.

Diplomacy kills piracy, not guns

As regional navies are increasingly asked to juggle anti-piracy, anti-smuggling and illegal fishing operations, their resources are spread thin. To patrol the vast regional waterways, Oleh itu, requires extensive collaboration between states.

“There are too many dots out there that need joining and if any are weak or vulnerable, pirates will take advantage,” Singh said.

Regional cooperation was proven effective in curbing piracy. Pada tahun 2004, the three littoral states began trilateral coordinated patrols in the Malacca Strait. Perlahan tetapi pasti, the SOMS became a safer place and piracy incidents fell.

Singapura Information Fusion Centre (IFC) acts as a regional maritime security centre and fosters closer marine ties between states. Greater intelligence sharing across regional nations in this manner can help bridge the information and reduce navy response times in the event of a security incident.

For Singh, one way to build deeper ties is to incentivise cooperation. Singapore can “use defence diplomacy to get a greater buy-in within our neighbourhood to counter pirates.”

No perpetrators have been arrested so far. Although the recent spate of piracy incidents largely resulted in material losses, and were non-violent, curbing the threat of piracy has to become a defence priority.

Singh concluded: “Singapore cannot alone fight regional piracy but we will definitely pay a high price if [regional efforts] fail,” adding, “while we are robust at home, we need to export this robustness to our neighbourhood for a win-win outcome.”

Mengenai Pengarang

Joelyn Chan
Joelyn adalah penulis lepas yang berpusat di Singapura. Dia lulus dari Universiti Teknologi Nanyang dengan Ijazah Sarjana Muda dalam bidang Perakaunan dan Perniagaan. Semasa masa lapang, dia meneroka perkembangan terkini dalam fintech dan perniagaan.