在农业伦理: 侵犯人权坚持在印尼的棕榈油业务

玉米, 棕榈油种植, 和Talamau山西PASAMAN, 西苏门答腊照片:Gthozy

棕榈油公司移动, 在西苏门答腊当地社区正在失去他们的故土访问. 尽管困难重重, 他们推回.

通过 扎卡里弗莱

A group of 50 rural communities in West Sumatra, 印度尼西亚, are coming together to fight illegal access to their native lands. They claim that one of the world’s biggest palm oil suppliers, Wilmar International, along with its subsidiaries and suppliers, took over portions of their land without consent.

With the help of two local NGO’s, The Nagari Institute and the Forest Peoples Programme (FPP), the community is working towards a resolution with the company. 然而, they continue to face intimidation and criminalisation for pushing back.

Speaking with ASEAN Today, Zulkifli, the director of the Nagari Institute and member of an affected community, detailed repeated attempts to undermine local voices after concerns were raised.

“因为土著人民不接受公司的行为,并继续抗议和捍卫自己的土地, 有资本实力的公司 [SIC] 构成威胁, 被逮捕并试图驱逐土著社区的抗议浪潮,“ 他说.

RSPO没有有效地调解争议

可持续棕榈油圆桌会议 ([R小号PO) 是一个将利益相关者召集在一起以促进可持续棕榈油实践的组织. 他们对符合环境和社会影响标准的供应商进行认证,并充当公司与当地社区之间纠纷的调解人.

他们的理想很强, 一些非政府组织, 包含 绿色和平, 说RSPO成员中仍然存在标准和违反程序的情况. 根据西苏门答腊受影响的社区, RSPO正在保护社区. 当地人声称做得还不够,不能阻止对习惯土地的非法收购.

关于Wilmar被侵犯向RSPO提出的两项正式投诉表明了他们的担忧. 在 2014, 最初的 抱怨 已向RSPO提交. 三年后, RSPO裁定Wilmar子公司未遵循印度尼西亚的许可程序, 命令该公司共同绘制种植园图并商定一项利益分享计划.

虽然为社区带来了成功, 子公司员工的恐吓和威胁正在破坏这一过程. 正式投诉在 2015 应对当地社区面临的威胁, 到目前为止没有解决方案.

棕榈油种植园
照片来源: 克雷格·莫雷/ Flickr的

此外, a community meeting with Wilmar and the RSPO at the Sustainable Palm Oil Roundtable in November 2018 produced no substantive changes. Despite commitments from both organisations to investigate alleged abuses, locals claim little has changed. 一些 50 communities continue to face intimidation and barred access to customary lands.

For Zulkifli, the ordeal represents a broken system.

“Wilmar International and the RSPO have failed to address these systemic problems. A year ago, they promised to conduct a joint risk assessment, but despite regularly urging them to turn commitment into action, no assessment has taken place,” he said.

Wilmar needs to double down on its responsibility to local communities

Wilmar International brands itself as a world leader in the processing and merchandising of edible oils. According to company 数据, net profit surged by 27.4% 在 2018, buoyed by a 37.4% increase in tropical oil profits and a 20.3% increase in oilseeds and grains profits.

As for its ethical commitments, the company’s website claims it prioritises social 主动性 and environmental standards. The cases in West Sumatra, 然而, suggest there is more work to be done to ensure internal standards are fully met within its supply chain.

Speaking with ASEAN Today, a Wilmar spokesman recognised the issues surrounding the firm’s operations in West Sumatra. They acknowledged that there are areas for improvement, but highlighted the company’s commitment to 可持续性 在该区域.

“Wilmar commissioned the Earthworm Foundation (EF), formerly known as The Forest Trust (TFT), 在九月 2018 to conduct a thorough evaluation of issues raised against Wilmar’s internal systems on social grievance as part of an ongoing long-term initiative to identify and develop lasting resolutions for conflict in West Sumatra.”

“EF have thus far engaged hundreds of stakeholders in Pasaman Barat, 西苏门答腊, including members of the affected community, village heads, community and customary leaders, smallholder cooperative units, local NGOs, as well as Wilmar management,” the spokesperson claimed.

“Based on initial findings by EF, we have begun working on implementing the recommendations by EF to address these gaps whilst continuing engagement with the affected communities and to resolve the related conflicts in Pasaman Barat.”

But according to EF, inadequate engagement with affected communities and a lack of accountability over grievance management is leading to high levels of frustration among locals. They suggested a revision of all past and existing agreements with communities to bring them in line with company principles.

A lack of community engagement and accountability is clearly hindering efforts to provide lasting resolutions to these conflicts. Wilmar says the RSPO scrapped its planned investigation since the findings in EF’s study “were comprehensive and would render the earlier agreed-upon exercise redundant.”

The FPP, 然而, argues EF’s study was hardly comprehensive. FPP claims that most of the 50 communities facing barred access and threats were not involved in the study. The EF 报告 says discussions took place with four groups of communities.

Human rights violations cannot be ignored

Conspicuously missing from EF’s report are statements on the alleged intimidation communities have faced for speaking out.

When asked about any existing knowledge of allegations of intimidation by Wilmar subsidiaries, the spokesman demurred. They highlighted the company’s 人权whistleblower policies and reiterated Wilmar’s “zero tolerance for threats, intimidation, 骚扰, retaliation and especially the use of violence against anyone who raises concerns.”

But the FPP and the Nagari Institute are adamant that company intimidation is affecting locals’ wellbeing. 举个例子, the FPP alleges that upon returning to the village from an initial meeting with Wilmar and the RSPO in November 2014, community leaders were interrogated by the police for using funds generated by the community palm oil plantation to pay for the trip.

Local community members employed by a Wilmar subsidiary, who later confessed to accepting payments to make false statements, 提出投诉. Despite withdrawing the statements, they were still used as evidence in a case against the community leaders. Most were found guilty and sentenced to between a month and year in jail.

Speaking with ASEAN Today, Patrick Anderson, a policy advisor with the FPP, says community criminalisation continues to mar the push for fair land rights in West Sumatra.

“[Communities] are sure that the company is behind the intimidation and criminalisation. Most of those leaders are facing further charges today. This is despite the fact that [the community] won their case with the RSPO, and has said to Wilmar that they are willing to effectively lease their lands that had been taken over for palm oil back to Wilmar. Similar tactics are used by other Wilmar subsidiaries in West Sumatra, as well as other tactics to intimidate women and girls,“ 他说.

According to village testimony, 当地警察猛烈威胁在Wilmar子公司要求保护的领域工作的妇女. 一位乡村妇女, 青少年, 要求她的房子, 以及她和她的孩子们的财产, 在争议土地上定居后被烧毁.

像Wilmar这样的大公司有责任确保与他们所在的社区合作生产产品, 其中包括在没有恐吓的情况下抗议的全部权利. 丰益集团的人权和可持续发展政策值得称赞, 但是除非得到有力的执法支持,否则监督机制, 他们对像祖尔科夫利(Zulkifli).

关于作者

扎卡里弗莱
扎克是总部设在曼谷的一个作家和研究员. 他研究政治学在DePaul大学和国际关系在哈佛. 兴趣爱好包括人权, 政, 文化和宗教的和交叉.