media sosial adalah memudahkan radikal Islam di Indonesia

Graffiti bendera ISIS yang mati di bekas penghantaranFoto: Thierry Ehrmann

Lebih muda Islam Indonesia akan online untuk pendidikan agama mereka. Dalam landskap di mana kemarahan dan keradangan diberi ganjaran, umat Islam muda menghadapi peningkatan risiko radikalisasi.


Indonesia adalah sebahagian daripada pengguna media sosial yang paling aktif di dunia. 150 juta Indonesia berbelanja lebih daripada tiga jam sehari perikanan pukat tunda laman media sosial, dengan Facebook, Instagram dan YouTube meraih pelawat yang paling. Dengan penonton yang berada, kumpulan Islam sedang menembusi menggunakan media sosial untuk radicalise muda Islam.

A 2017 belajar oleh Syarif Hidayatullah Universiti Negeri Islam (UIN) dengan kerjasama Program Pembangunan PBB (UNDP) mendapati that young Indonesian Muslims who use the internet have more radical and intolerant views compared to those who rarely go online. 88.5% daripada 1,859 respondents percaya that the government should ban religious minority groups. tambahan, a similar study mendedahkan yang 10% of young Indonesians supported the establishment of an Islamic State and would accept the use of violence as a means of defending the religion.

Millennials are seeking religious knowledge through social media

Irfan Abubakar, a researcher from UIN, diterangkan how young people are increasingly turning to the internet as their primary source of religious information. As the next generation of young, digital-savvy Muslims abandon mosques and take their spiritual and religious studies online, there is the danger of absolutism, mana individu yang menganggap kepercayaan mereka sendiri sebagai kebenaran mutlak dan enggan mengakui kesahihan ajaran agama lain. "Mutlak adalah satu ancaman kepada masyarakat majmuk di negara ini,"Kata Irfan.

Banyak paling popular pendakwah talian sering meluahkan kisah radikal seperti India Ulama, Zakir Naik dan pendakwah Indonesia, Khalid Basalamah, yang telah ditolak di beberapa buah masjid Nahdlatul Ulama untuk sikap beliau.

media sosial adalah pemangkin kepada keganasan

dr Solahudin, seorang pakar keganasan dari Universiti Indonesia, ditemuramah 75 disabitkan pengganas dan mendapati bahawa media sosial memainkan peranan sebagai pemangkin dalam proses radikalisasi yang. Pada tahun 85% kes-kes, the convicted terrorists said that it took them less than a year from the time they were exposed to radical ideology to commit an act of terrorism.

“Before the widespread use of social media, it would take between five and 10 years for a newly radicalised individual to take part in a terror attack," dia menambah.

Islamic State fighters who have surrendered to Afghan government forces in April 2018, after having been defeated by the Taliban.
Foto: Mirwais Bezhan/VOA

Alongside anti-Western messages, Islamist groups tout the benefits of life in the caliphate. These groups see democracy as Haram (forbidden by religion) and represent a direct threat to the country’s Pancasila ideology.

Although many accounts spreading extremist content have been blocked and deleted, new accounts continue to sprout up. Tahun lepas, Facebook dinyatakan that Indonesia is one a few countries where a large number of users have fake or duplicated accounts. When radical accounts are deleted, users simply migrate to another account to spread their ideas, making tackling hate online a game of cat-and-mouse between Islamists and the authorities.

Muslim figures who promote moderate teachings don’t interest young Muslims

Young Muslims are eschewing the two largest Islamic organisations in the country, Nahdlatul Ulama (TIDAK) and Muhammudiyah. Di media sosial, where rage and inflammatory comment is rewarded with likes, comments and shares, their moderate content is struggling to compete with more radical groups. Their regular posts on Facebook only receive hundreds of likes at most, while more radical accounts frequently hit lebih daripada 1,400 likes on a single post.

NU is the only moderate group amongst the top 10 religious’ sites in the country. The rest are Wahhabi or groups with an intolerant and ultra-conservative view.

Menurut to terrorism expert Ridwan Habib, NU and Muhammadiyah are failing to attract young Indonesian Muslims because they lack young representatives.

NU has recently terbentuk the One Nation Forum (FSB) to tackle the issue. NU will organise meetings and work with other stakeholders to combat the spread of radical ideology.

Walau bagaimanapun, Islamist groups have an advantage. The platforms’ models work in their favour and they have become adept at producing content designed to drive engagement. The two major producers of radical content in Indonesia, Gen. 5.54 and Saveme Project have created a variety of unique materials ranging from e-magazines to Android applications to appeal to young Muslims.

The government and other stakeholders must intensify efforts to stop the spread of radical content

Large Muslim organizations such as NU and Muhammadiyah will play a central role in curbing Islamic extremism online. A renewed social media strategy with more youth-friendly religious content and social media preachers that understand the language and the lifestyle of young Indonesian Muslims will better-connect with young people.

The government and social media players such as Facebook, Instagram and Twitter also have a central role in preventing radical messages from spreading online. Social media giants like Facebook use machine learning to automatically detect images and videos that are extremist in nature. This is reducing the length of time radical content remains online. In the first quarter of last year, it took an average of 43 Jam to remove dangerous content. By the third quarter, this was slashed to 18 Jam.

Walau bagaimanapun, more improvements need to be implemented. Facebook’s algorithm that suggests posts and groups a user may be interested in based on their online activity can inadvertently recommend extremist content, facilitating the radicalisation of young Indonesians.

Facebook has acknowledged its limitations and the work that needs to be done. But so far, extremist groups are winning the digital battle, and without improvements in the detection technology, the country will continue to struggle to keep young people safe online.