Sosial media adalah memfasilitasi radikalisasi Islam di Indonesia

Graffiti bendera ISIS tergeletak di wadah pengirimanFoto: Thierry Ehrmann

Muslim lebih muda Indonesia akan online untuk pendidikan agama mereka. Dalam lanskap di mana kemarahan dan peradangan dihargai, ini pemuda Muslim menghadapi peningkatan risiko radikalisasi.

Tajuk rencana

Indonesia adalah beberapa pengguna yang paling aktif media sosial di dunia. 150 juta Indonesia menghabiskan lebih dari tiga jam sehari trawl situs media sosial, dengan Facebook, Instagram dan YouTube mengumpulkan pengunjung terbanyak. Dengan pendengar, kelompok-kelompok Islam membuat terobosan menggunakan media sosial untuk meradikalisasi kaum muda Muslim.

SEBUAH 2017 belajar oleh Syarif Hidayatullah Universitas Islam Negeri (UIN) bekerjasama dengan Program Pembangunan PBB (UNDP) ditemukan that young Indonesian Muslims who use the internet have more radical and intolerant views compared to those who rarely go online. 88.5% dari 1,859 respondents dipercayai that the government should ban religious minority groups. Selain itu, a similar study mengungkapkan bahwa 10% of young Indonesians supported the establishment of an Islamic State and would accept the use of violence as a means of defending the religion.

Millennials are seeking religious knowledge through social media

Irfan Abubakar, a researcher from UIN, dijelaskan how young people are increasingly turning to the internet as their primary source of religious information. As the next generation of young, digital-savvy Muslims abandon mosques and take their spiritual and religious studies online, there is the danger of absolutism, di mana individu menganggap keyakinan mereka sendiri sebagai kebenaran mutlak dan menolak untuk mengakui keabsahan ajaran agama lainnya. “Absolutisme adalah ancaman bagi masyarakat pluralistik negara,”Kata Irfan.

Banyak paling populer pengkhotbah secara online sering mengungkapkan narasi radikal seperti India Ulama, Zakir Naik dan pengkhotbah Indonesia, Khalid Basalamah, yang telah ditolak di beberapa masjid Nahdlatul Ulama untuk sikap nya.

Media sosial adalah katalis bagi terorisme

Dr Solahudin, seorang pakar terorisme dari Universitas Indonesia, diwawancarai 75 dihukum teroris dan menemukan bahwa media sosial memainkan peran katalisator dalam proses radikalisasi. Di 85% kasus, teroris dihukum mengatakan bahwa hal itu membawa mereka kurang dari satu tahun dari saat mereka terkena ideologi radikal untuk melakukan aksi terorisme.

“Before the widespread use of social media, it would take between five and 10 years for a newly radicalised individual to take part in a terror attack," dia menambahkan.

Islamic State fighters who have surrendered to Afghan government forces in April 2018, after having been defeated by the Taliban.
Foto: Mirwais Bezhan/VOA

Alongside anti-Western messages, Islamist groups tout the benefits of life in the caliphate. These groups see democracy as Haram (forbidden by religion) and represent a direct threat to the country’s Pancasila ideology.

Although many accounts spreading extremist content have been blocked and deleted, new accounts continue to sprout up. tahun lalu, Facebook menyatakan that Indonesia is one a few countries where a large number of users have fake or duplicated accounts. When radical accounts are deleted, users simply migrate to another account to spread their ideas, making tackling hate online a game of cat-and-mouse between Islamists and the authorities.

Muslim figures who promote moderate teachings don’t interest young Muslims

Young Muslims are eschewing the two largest Islamic organisations in the country, Nahdlatul Ulama (TIDAK) and Muhammudiyah. On social media, where rage and inflammatory comment is rewarded with likes, comments and shares, their moderate content is struggling to compete with more radical groups. Their regular posts on Facebook only receive hundreds of likes at most, while more radical accounts frequently hit lebih dari 1,400 likes on a single post.

NU is the only moderate group amongst the top 10 religious’ sites in the country. The rest are Wahhabi or groups with an intolerant and ultra-conservative view.

Menurut to terrorism expert Ridwan Habib, NU and Muhammadiyah are failing to attract young Indonesian Muslims because they lack young representatives.

NU has recently dibentuk the One Nation Forum (FSB) to tackle the issue. NU will organise meetings and work with other stakeholders to combat the spread of radical ideology.

Namun, Islamist groups have an advantage. The platforms’ models work in their favour and they have become adept at producing content designed to drive engagement. The two major producers of radical content in Indonesia, Gen. 5.54 and Saveme Project have created a variety of unique materials ranging from e-magazines to Android applications to appeal to young Muslims.

Itu government and other stakeholders must intensify efforts to stop the spread of radical content

Large Muslim organizations such as NU and Muhammadiyah will play a central role in curbing Islamic extremism online. A renewed social media strategy with more youth-friendly religious content and social media preachers that understand the language and the lifestyle of young Indonesian Muslims will better-connect with young people.

The government and social media players such as Facebook, Instagram and Twitter also have a central role in preventing radical messages from spreading online. Social media giants like Facebook use machine learning to automatically detect images and videos that are extremist in nature. This is reducing the length of time radical content remains online. In the first quarter of last year, it took an average of 43 jam to remove dangerous content. By the third quarter, this was slashed to 18 jam.

Namun, more improvements need to be implemented. Facebook’s algorithm that suggests posts and groups a user may be interested in based on their online activity can inadvertently recommend extremist content, facilitating the radicalisation of young Indonesians.

Facebook has acknowledged its limitations and the work that needs to be done. Namun sejauh ini, extremist groups are winning the digital battle, and without improvements in the detection technology, the country will continue to struggle to keep young people safe online.