Singapura Menyukai Air Botol:: Amalan Yang Mahal

Foto:Steven Depolo

Air paip Singapura adalah selamat untuk diminum. Meskipun begitu, permintaan ke atas air botol meningkat dari tahun ke tahun.

Oleh Maegan Liew

Perusahaan air botol sedang berkembang pesat di Singapura. Jualan air botol di Singapura tumbuh dari S$161.3 million (US$117.3 million) dalam 2013 to S$179.4 million (US$130.4 million) dalam 2018.

Pada tahun 2015, Singaporean consumers spent about S$134 million (US$97.4 million) on still bottled water – yang 24% increase from five years before.

Within Asia, Singapore is one of the few countries where tap water is safe for consumption, alongside Japan and South Korea. The city-state is also renowned for its water technologies and its position at the front line of water innovation.

If clean, potable water is easily accessible with the turn of a tap, why would people go out of the way to purchase bottled water, and at a significantly higher price?

Bottled water consumption comes with environmental and health threats

The rising trend of bottled water consumption has a significant environmental impact. Most bottled water is sold in single-use plastic containers, very few of which are recycled. A 2018 study by the Singapore Environment Council mendapati bahawa mengenai 467 million plastic bottles are used in Singapore each year, enough to fill 94 Olympic-sized swimming pools.

Meskipun begitu, sahaja 4% of plastics were recycled last year, according to statistics from the National Environment Agency.

sumber: Singapore Environment Council

lebih-lebih lagi, contrary to popular belief, bottled water is not necessarily safer than tap water. A study commissioned in 2001 by World Wildlife Fund International reported that there are fewer standards regulating the bottled water industry than tap water in Europe and the US.

In Singapore, the import of bottled water is regulated by the Agri-Food & Veterinary Authority (AVA). While the WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality contain more than 200 parameters for acceptable drinking water, the AVA’s water quality parameters and requirements amount to around 30.

Improper or extended storage of bottled water could further pose health risks to consumers. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), the plastics used in water bottles, mungkin leach antimony when stored for a long period of time. Antimony is a regulated contaminant which can cause acute and chronic health effects including vomiting and diarrhoea.

Foto: Tookapic

While bottled mineral or alkaline water are marketed as healthier alternatives to tap water, many bottled water products are sourced from public water supplies. Market leaders, including F&N’s Ice Mountain and Coca-Cola’s Dasani, are sourced and packed from local water supplies in Malaysia. bersama-sama, these two brands accounted for more than half of the bottled water sales volume in Singapore in 2014.

Price largely determines Singaporeanschoice of bottled water

Price appears to be the main criterion for Singaporean consumers choice of bottled water. The sale of low-priced bottled water is on an upward trend. Menurut to Sheng Siong, a leading supermarket chain in Singapore, the cheapest bottled water is the most popular.

But if the price is the deciding factor, then tap water ought to be the clear winner. A 600ml bottle of drinking water retails for about S$0.50 (US$0.36) to S$1 (US$0.73), while the same volume of tap water only costs 0.1 cent Menurut to PUB. This makes tap water 500 ke 1,000 times cheaper than bottled water.

Walau bagaimanapun, experts say that the relatively low retail price of bottled water as compared to other drinks in the market means that this price differential, while significant, is not sufficient to motivate consumers to give up bottled water consumption. Lagipun, at S$1 (US$0.73) a bottle, this is a price many are willing to pay for convenient and immediate access to water.

Plastic waste litters Singapore’s ECP.
Foto Vaidehi Shah

Ingrained habits are hard to break

In spite of the high drinking quality of the Republic’s tap water, its citizens are not in the habit of drinking directly from the tap.

It is a common practice in Singaporean households to boil water before drinking it. This stems from ingrained habits that were passed down from one generation to another. Untuk kebanyakan, boiling drinking water is a hangover from times gone by when sanitation and hygiene standards were lower, and water had to be boiled to kill any bacteria or pathogens that might be present.

tambahan, many Singaporeans still believe that public taps are dirty, putting them off drinking or refilling bottles in public. Bottled water becomes a convenient and affordable alternative and the clear choice for Singaporeans looking to escape the ‘yuck’ factor that comes with drinking from public taps.

Langkah pertama yang penting ke arah mengurangkan pergantungan Singapura pembohongan air botol dalam membuat air pancut air minuman yang sedia ada dalam ruang awam supaya orang ramai tidak perlu mengambil jalan keluar dengan membeli air botol di luar rumah mereka.

perhatian yang besar telah tertarik dengan kesan dan lebihan penggunaan straw plastik sejak kebelakangan ini. Namun terdapat ketara kurang kesedaran terhadap penggunaan bekas plastik. penggunaan air botol percuma dan sisa plastik ia menjana benar-benar tidak perlu dan mudah tdk diperlukan di Singapura jika orang hanya menghidupkan paip.

Bukan sahaja yang dahagakan air botol membakar lubang dalam poket rakyat Singapura, but it is also an unnecessary and avoidable addition to the damage that mankind is already inflicting on the environment.

Mengenai Pengarang

Maegan Liew
Maegan belajar Sains Politik di Universiti Nasional Singapura. Dia senang membincangkan hubungan antarabangsa dan berusaha untuk memahami dunia dengan lebih baik melalui penulisan.