A meludah ke atas minyak sawit: kesabaran di Filipina dengan Malaysia dan Indonesia memakai nipis

ladang kelapa sawitphoto Kredit: Craig Morey / Flickr

sejak November 2018, Jabatan di Filipina Pertanian (OF) mempunyai menekankan jumlah import minyak sawit yang berlebihan. Apabila ia mengancam untuk mengeluarkan larangan sementara, Malaysia dan Indonesia akhirnya bertindak balas.

oleh Joelyn Chan

The Philippines consumed approximately 1.3 juta tan metrik of palm oil in 2017. Despite experiencing no significant increase in demand, the Philippines Statistics Authority (PSA) reported that the nation’s palm oil imports reached a new high in 2018, soaring to 278,384.039 metric tons. Ini adalah 176.3%, higher than 2017’s imports.

Quoting the nation’s Agriculture Secretary Emmanuel Piñol, palm oil imports from Indonesia and Malaysia have increased by 900% over the last three years. Walau bagaimanapun, there is no corresponding surge in palm oil consumption in recent years. This sudden and drastic increase in volume raised suspicions of palm oil dumping.

This is a serious issue for the Philippines. Palm oil can substitute copra in the manufacturing of cooking oil. Palm oil dumping in Filipino markets is causing excessive supply, driving local copra prices down.

Five months after the DA voiced its concerns, Indonesia and Malaysia agreed to form a Tripartite Technical Working Group (TWG) to settle the palm oil dumping issue. The group will attempt to determine a healthy level for palm oil imports.

sumber: Statista

The Philippines reserves the right to issue a temporary ban

According to World Trade Organisation (WTO), “A WTO member may take a safeguard action (cth, temporarily restrict a product’s imports) only if the increased imports of the product are found to be causing, or threatening to cause, serious injury.”

The importation of palm oil caused harm to the Philippines’ copra market. Oleh itu, under WTO rules, the government would be within its rights to restrict the import of palm oil from Malaysia and Indonesia.

The Philippines has taken measures to protect its copra exports before. Pada tahun 1995, the Filipino government raised a dispute with the WTO when Brazil imposed duty on its desiccated coconut export. The Philippines claimed that this duty was inconsistent with WTO and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) rules.

It is an opportunity for Philippines to correct its trade deficit

The Philippines’ trade deficit is becoming a big problem for the nation. Its trade-in-goods deficit in 2018 was the nation’s highest ever. With slow export growth, the trade deficit of 41.44 bilion peso (AS $ 2.2 bilion) will likely continue to grow.

sumber: SEMAK

The Philippines maintained a negative agricultural trade balance in 2017. It reported trade deficits with its major trading partners, including other ASEAN nations.

Indonesia has attempted to appease the Filipino government

In an attempt to appease the Filipino government and ease tensions, Indonesia lifted anti-dumping measures on Filipino bananas and non-tariff measure on onions in early April.

Indonesian Trade Minister Enggartiasto Lukita even urged Filipino exporters to start exporting agricultural products to Indonesia.

The move offers the Philippines an opportunity chance to review its export activities and address its expanding trade deficit.

Bilaterial ties are important for ASEAN’s development

Under the ASEAN Trade in Goods Agreement (ATIGA), Malaysia and Indonesia enjoy tariff-free rates on palm oil. ATIGA has promoted the free flow of goods across ASEAN by reducing trade barriers and deepening economic cooperation.

Dumping is a direct threat to this economic trust and cooperation. Demi pertumbuhan dan perkembangan ASEAN, negara anggota mesti tetap bersatu dan mengelakkan amalan perdagangan pemangsa. Pelaksanaan defensif, dasar perlindungan ekonomi hanya akan menghalang kemajuan dan kemakmuran ekonomi ASEAN.

Mengenai Pengarang

Joelyn Chan
Joelyn adalah penulis lepas yang berpusat di Singapura. Dia lulus dari Universiti Teknologi Nanyang dengan Ijazah Sarjana Muda dalam bidang Perakaunan dan Perniagaan. Semasa masa lapang, dia meneroka perkembangan terkini dalam fintech dan perniagaan.