印尼通过更深层次的经济联系加强其在非洲的存在

开普敦港. 照片来源: SkyPixels /维基共享资源

在追求正在成为世界上最大的经济体之一, 印度尼西亚一直积极寻求新的机会,并与其他发展中经济体强关系. 非洲大陆代表财富的机会.

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去年四月, 印尼政府主办的第一届 印尼 - 非洲论坛 (IAF) 在巴厘岛. 高级代表和来自两个实体的商务人士齐聚一堂,发掘投资机会,以加强经济联系. 本次论坛导致商业交易总额超过 US $ 7十亿.

由于总统佐科威上任 2014, 印尼的非洲政策优先考虑经济的参与和合作. 根据 到贸易部, 在 2017 该国总出口的非洲国家站在US $ 4.86十亿, a marked increase from US$4.16 billion in 2016. With the positive trends continuing, the country is ready to take further steps to enhance economic ties with Africa.

Indonesia’s main exports to the continent include palm oil, garments, processed foods and beverages. From Africa, imports are mainly crude oil, cocoa beans, cotton, and chemicals for fertilizers and industries.

资源: 经济学家

Stronger cooperation benefits both sides

The time is right for ASEAN nations to deepen economic ties with the African continent. Africa currently has a middle-class population of 330 百万. It is also a young population, 同 62% under the age of 25. This young population will equip the workforce with innovative minds, giving it a competitive edge, and increasing efficiency, all of which are crucial in boosting Africa’s economic growth.

在 2016, the African region 保持 its position as the second-fastest growing economy in the world, enjoying 3.5% 经济增长. This growth is expected to rise to 4.3% 通过 2020. A third of sub-Saharan nations are projected to expand their economies by more than 5% per year over the next five years. An additional 300 million Africans will also enter the digital sphere by 2025. Africa represents a barely-tapped gold mine for consumers.

As the economies mature, there is no shortage of infrastructure projects that could entice ASEAN investors. Somalia has 邀请 Indonesia to invest in the development of roads, 港口, 和农业. Ghana has also called on Indonesia to help on the development of its 1 million homes program.

“Indonesia wants to be part of developments in Africa and Indonesia also wants Africa to be part of developments in Indonesia,” 说过 Retno Marsudi during the 2018 IAF forum.

Africa plays an important role in supplying energy to Indonesia. Nigeria and Angola are key suppliers of oil and gas, an important component of the country’s rapid development. Nigeria accounts for 5.4% of the nation’s total imports of mineral fuels including oils, whereas Angola accounts for 1.6%. As for the whole African continent, it holds 12% of mineral fuels and oils imports.

Indonesia and Africa are also planning to work together in the digital sector. Indonesia has become one of the hottest start-up hubs in the world, while Africa has the world’s fastest growth in internet users. Enhancing cooperation could promote partnerships between entrepreneurs and boost the development of the country’s digital economy.

The future looks promising if both sides can overcome several major hurdles

One of the obstacles to enhancing economic cooperation lies in tariffs. Indonesia does more trade with Brazil, for example than any African nation, despite the country being significantly further away than the African continent. This is because high tariffs exclude many Indonesian firms from African markets.

今年早些时候, the Indonesian government 开始了 negotiation talks with some African countries such as Morocco, Mozambique, and Tunisia in regards to the Preferential Trade Agreement (PTA). 也是 in negotiations with the Southern African Customs Union, which includes South Africa, over a possible PTA designed to lower tariffs.

When it comes to reducing tariffs and bolstering trade, the African continent could learn something from Indonesia and its ASEAN colleagues. The African continent comprises 54 different governments. If the continent deepened its political and economic cooperation, countries like Indonesia would not have to negotiate for lower tariffs with each country individually. It could negotiate with a bloc, much like ASEAN, and streamline the process, unlocking business opportunities far earlier than it would by negotiating with nations one-by-one.

The African Continental Free Trade Area agreement, which seeks to give the African continent a single voice, still requires ratification from three nations to enter into force.

Corruption is another powerful obstacle to economic development. It undermines the stability of the state and creates economic uncertainty which could discourage investors.

Indonesia is 预计 to become the fourth largest economy in the world in 2050, 但它需要保持经济增长,实现这些预测. 它需要多元化其出口基地,以减少全球经济的挑战,它的脆弱性, 像美国与中国的贸易战争. 攻到非传统市场, 像非洲大陆, 将是一个挑战, 但回报将是丰富.